Saturday, July 29, 2023

How the Building Construction process works in India

Building Construction process in India

Getting familiarized with the building construction process in India is a must. This is to ensure that you are well aware of all the procedures involved and avoid any fraud against you.\ The building construction process varies slightly from place to place, according to seasons, building materials, laws, and context of the site. However, the process remains consistent across the world for the materials you are most familiar with in construction, like RCC frame construction, wooden formwork, precast technology, etc.

In India, the process of building construction has remained virtually the same since the early 90’s, and oftentimes people want to know how their houses or any other projects will be built.

The Indian building construction process takes place in the following 9 steps.

  1. Plot of land for construction

You need to have a plot of land of your own for building your project. Along with it, you will need all the necessary documents related to your plot of land for verification and smooth functioning of your construction.

Checklist of important documents for buying a plot of land:

  1. Sale Deed /Title Deed /Mother Deed /Conveyance Deed is for conveying the ownership of property reflecting the sale and transfer from seller to buyer
  2. Lease Deed, if lease is granted by govt which culminated in ownership
  3. Deed of Partition along with court decree if it is ancestral property
  4. Will, if the property is inherited
  5. Gift Deed, if the property is a gift
  6. Land Rights Certificate issued by the revenue authorities
  7. Revenue Records, i.e. annual and five-yearly records maintained by the Revenue Department
  8. Proofs of deposits of property tax/electricity bills/water bills etc.

You also need Land Clearance and Zonal Clearance done beforehand.

  1. Hire an architect
hire an architect

The next step is to get an architect on board for your project. It is important that you know what you want to build, or you should be open to ideas from the architect for the best results.

There are 2 major steps that take place here.

Design discussion

In the design discussion, you communicate thoroughly with the architect. You convey all necessary details related to your project like the number of people who will be living there, requirements for your project, the vision, expectations, etc.

This discussion is the most important part of the building process as the architect can design exactly according to your needs.

Preparation of design brief

A detailed brief is created by the architect, reflecting everything that was conveyed in the design discussion.

It shall include all deliverables, scope of the project, as well as a tentative timeline and budget.

  1. Site survey

Site surveys are carried out on the plot of land to gather necessary information for designing of a project. This information includes slope and contour details, water bodies details, access to the site, best orientation for the site, determining the precise location of the site as well as of obstacles on the site.

They are usually done when architects recognize the need for it in order to design complementing the site characteristics.

  1. Design delivery
architecture design drawings

The final design is completed by the architect according to the design brief, and approved by the client.

All drawings are then delivered to the client from plans, sections and elevations to views.

  1. Sanctioning from government

The drawings signed by the architect then need to be sanctioned for approval of construction.

These drawings are-

  • Building Plan
  • Layout approval
  • Intimation of Disapproval
  • Services & Utilities Installation

\ The documents needed along with Sanctioning drawings are:

  • Plot Regularization Letter (RL)
  • Plot Sale Deed
  • KYC of the owners
  • Certain miscellaneous forms by the local government body

Once sanctioning drawings are approved, a demand note is generated by the government. It is to pay them for all basic amenities like water and electricity.

The rates are decided by Annual Statement Rate (ASR), and the detailed breakdown is given in Development Control Regulations (DCR). It differs in each local government body, for example, Bombay Municipal Corporation’s (BMC) rates differ from Nagpur Municipal Corporation’s (NMC) rates.

  1. Structural drawings delivery

Structural drawings are then delivered, which are designed by the structural engineer under the guidance of the architect.

The different structural drawings are delivered with each level:

  • Foundation level
  • Plinth level
  • Column details
  • Beam details
  • Slab level
  • Any additional structural details needed for any architectural elements

The contractor executes the project, the site engineer checks the construction site & processes, and reports to the architect.

building skeleton structure

On the basis of this process, the skeleton of the structure is ready.

  1. Architectural brickwork
brick walls construction

Brickwork drawings are prepared for all levels/floors, with necessary details like niches and openings.

The brickwork is then executed along with door and window frames.

  1. MEP drawings delivery

Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) drawings are prepared once all the brickwork is done. All fittings are then installed on site according to the drawings.

electrical fittings

The mechanical, electrical, and plumbing contractors are usually appointed by the general contractor. However, these tasks can also be outsourced.

  1. Flooring, fixtures and finishes

At this stage, all the finishing is done. Flooring, its polishing, and plastering are the bigger tasks that are finished first. Then fixtures for lights, fans, taps, etc. are installed.

finishing touches in construction

All the final touches are given, and your house/project is ready!

The last step in the building construction process in India is to get a Completion Certificate and an Occupancy Certificate to declare that the construction is completed, and the project is ready for you to move in.

The Indian construction industry functions smoothly when all the professionals involved in this process collaborate instead of compete in a healthy way.

It ensures a great user experience for you as a client and an insight in how to make the best of the opportunity for constructing your project.

The Builtdesign team publishes content to make consumers aware of the industry. Our articles also focus on helping the community learn about recent trends.